The data set gives a score from 0 to 50 for the presence of a supra-tribal polity within the present-day boundaries of each of 149 countries. The scores reflect (a) existence of a government, (b) the proportion of the territory covered, and (c) whether it was indigenous or externally imposed. Details are provided in the introduction and appendix. Version 2 is the one used in Chanda and Putterman, “Early Starts, Reversals and Catch-up in the Process of Economic Development,” forthcoming, Scandinavian Journal of Economics , and other articles mentioned in the appendix. Version 3 contains additional data on some African and ex-Communist countries, and is used in more recent papers also cited in the appendix.